PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

32.      PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

32.1.    Rapid Clonal Propagation
A clone is a group of individuals or cells derived from a single parent individual or cell through asexual reproduction. All the cells in calls or suspension culture are derived from a single explant by mitotic division. Therefore all plantlets regenerated from a callus/suspension culture generally have the same genotype and constitute a clone. These plantlets are used for rapid clonal propagation. This is done in oil palm.
32.2.    Somaclonal Variation
Genetic variations present among plant cell culture is called somaclonal variation. The term somaclonal variation is also used for genetic variation present in plants regenerated from a single culture. This variation has used to develop several useful varieties.
This may due to somaclonal variation occur as a result of genetics heterogeneity disorder.
i.    Expression of chromosomal mosaicism or genetic disorder.
ii.    Spontaneous mutation due to culture condition. 
32.3.    Transgenic plants
A gene i.e. transferred into an organism by genetic engineering is known as the transgene. An organism that contains and expresses a transgene is called a transgenic organism.
32.4.    Induction and selection of Mutations 
Mutagens are added to single cell liquid cultures for induction of mutations. The cells are washed and transferred to solid culture for raising mutant plants. Useful mutants are selected for further breeding. Tolerance to stress like pollutants, toxins, salts, drought etc can also be obtained by providing them in culture medium in increasing dosage. The surviving healthy cells are taken to a solid medium for raising resistant plants.


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