BIOSPHERE

BIOSPHERE

7.   BIOSPHERE

All the thousands of ecosystems collectively form Biosphere. In other words we can say, the regions of Earth on its surface or atmosphere or another planet, that is occupied by living organism including their whole ecosystems, are termed as Biosphere. India has approximately 14 areas of biosphere reserves :-
eg. -    Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
        Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve
Other biosphere reserves are located in Kerela, Karnataka and Tamilnadu etc. In 1988 Nanda Devi biosphere was declared as our second biosphere reserve and the first one (Nilgiri) was declared in 1986. The biosphere is sub-divided in many Categories -
(1)    Lithosphere
(2)    Hydrosphere
(3)    Atmosphere
(4)    Geosphere
(5)    Noosphere
7.1.    Lithosphere: The meaning of 'lithosphere' refers to 'rocky' or 'rigid'. Earth's lithosphere includes the crust, rocks, soil and minerals. It is hard from it's outer most layer of the Earth. Outer most part of lithosphere chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. The outermost part of the lithosphere is called as pedosphere.
7.2.    Hydrosphere: All the water bodies or components of the earth are included in hydrospheres like ocean, lakes, seas, rivers and other island water bodies. It includes all type of water bodies whether it is frozen or liquid or whether it is fresh or marine.
7.3.    Atmosphere: Hydrosphere and lithosphere are covered by a gaseous layer, all the part excluding water bodies, land, soil and rocks is termed as the atmosphere. 
7.4.    Geosphere: Lithosphere, Hydrosphere and atmosphere, collectively termed as "Geosphere". It includes Earth, Water, Air and fire all.
7.5.    Noosphere: Noosphere is the sphere evolved or transformed from the biosphere by the involvement of human interference or instead we can say, the human dominating biosphere is now termed as "Noosphere".


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