ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR AXIS SPECIFICATION
11.4. Anterior-posterior axis specification
Anterior-posterior axis specification is determined by sonic hedgehog. After the limb bud formation, sonic hedgehog protein expressing area is called a Zone of polarising activity (ZPA). Sonic hedgehog work as morphogen gradient. The zone of polarizing activity of the limb bud has the pattern-organizing capability. The Sonic hedgehog gene is transcribed by Hox genes. Hoxb8 and dHAND gene product work as a transcription factor for Sonic hedgehog. The level of Sonic hedgehog is sustained by reciprocal induction between the ZPA and the AER, in which Sonic hedgehog induces the AER to produce FGF4 and FGF8 to maintain its own expression.
The anterior digits 3, 4 and 5 are specified by a temporal gradient of Sonic hedgehog. Digit two is specified by a long-range diffusible form of Sonic hedgehog and Digit one does not require Sonic hedgehog. Interdigital tissue is present between the two-digit during limb development the digits get separated by apoptosis in interdigit tissue. The BMP signals responsible for the interdigit apoptosis as they are expressed in the interdigit tissue and blocking BMP signalling will prevent interdigital apoptosis, leads to syndactyly (fused digits). When the BMP signalling is blocked in the interdigital tissue it prevents apoptosis interdigital tissue. This leads to syndactyly (fused digit) condition.
Shh (Sonic hedgehog) signalling
Sonic hedgehog activates Gli. Gli is a Zinc-finger transcription factor. Without Sonic hedgehog, Gli2 and Gli3 act as a repressor and travels to the nucleus to repress the Sonic hedgehog effect. Sonic hedgehog cleaves the Ci/Gli3 repressor complex and thus the Gli is not cleaved and it now works as the activator. Gli activates the expression of the HoxD gene along the A/P axis. The inactivation of Gli3 repressor leads to the condition of polydactyly, in which many digits are formed abnormally.
11.5. Dorsoventral Axis specification
The Dorsoventral signalling centre present in the dorsal ectoderm that is significant for patterning of ventral flexors muscles and dorsal extensors muscles. The critical morphogen considered for Dorsoventral polarity is the Wnt7a, expressed in ectodermal cells to induce the expression of Lmx1 gene in the underlying mesoderm that specifies the dorsal phenotype. The Wnt7a is both critical and sufficient to dorsalize the limb and its deficiency or inactivation may lead to a genetic defect named as Nail-patella syndrome.
The cellular origin during limb development in the form of Limb cartilage and bone cells are derived from LPM. It leads with the help of BMP morphogens BMP2 and BMP4. BMP2 and BMP4 are crucial to achieving chondrogenesis and later bone formation. Skeletal muscles of the limb are derived from somites (myotome) and dermal cells from the dermomyotome.
- CLEAVAGE AND AXIS FORMATION IN C. ELEGANS
- ANTERIOR POSTERIOR AXIS DIFFERENTIATION IN DROSOPHILA
- SEA URCHIN GASTRULATION
- XENOPUS GASTRULATION
- MATING SWITCH
- MORPHOGENESIS AND ORGANOGENESIS IN AMINALS
- CELL AGGREGATION AND DIFFERENTIATION IN DICTYOSTELIUM
- LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION
- DEVELOPMENT OF NEURONS
- LARVAE FORMATION
- SEX DETERMINATION
- EYE LENS INDUCTION
- THE ABC MODEL OF FLOWER DEVELOPMENT