ALTRUISM : (OR SELF LESSNESS)
2. ALTRUISM : (OR SELF LESSNESS)
The term coined by French philosopher Auguste Comte. Altruism in Biological organism- An individual performing an action which is a cost to themselves but benefits, either directly or indirectly other individuals of the group.
Altruism is just the opposite of natural selection. In natural selection, the fittest organism survives but in Altruism the fittest organism surrender itself to predator and sacrifice its life for the less fitted individual. Thus natural selection is contradictory to Altruism. Altruism is when a behaviour reducer the fitness of an individual but increase the fitness of other group or other individuals.
- Altruism is different from spiteful behaviour. A behaviour that reduces the fitness of both the actor and recipient is known as spiteful. A behaviour that increases the fitness of both recipient and actor is known as mutual benefit behaviour.
However, the William D. Hamilton's kin selection theory provides a relation between natural selection and Altruism.
Hamilton gives a relation between natural selection & Altruism.
Relatedness benefits are always more than cost or sometimes equal but never be less.
Examples of Altruism
1. Adelie Penguins: have shown selfish actions in their natural habitat. Sometimes one of the individuals is pushed off into the cold water of Antarctic while the others observe if the chosen one is safe or not. If there is no danger, then other penguins jump off the cliff into the water.
2. Velvet Monkey: (Mainly females/Male)
When any dangers face in a group then x -Monkeyface problems at first and warn them.
Alarm call - Run all offspring - velvet monkey Died.
• X- monkey M/F & All remaining Monkeys are subdominant
• Mating only x-monkey
• Sacrifices by x-male of after that struggle start between subdominant to become x-monkey (M/F)
Kin selection: Charles Darwin was the first to discuss the concept of kin selection. This was termed by Maynard Smith in 1964. Kin selection is a type of natural selection that consider the role of relatives when the genetic fitness of a given individual is evaluated. It is based upon the concept of inclusive fitness which is acquired by organism themselves during the life span.
Kin selection occurs when an animal engages in self-sacrifice behaviour that benefits the genetic fitness of its relatives.
Four types of social action based upon the fitness of recipient and actor.
Altruistic behaviour reduces the productive fitness of an actor and increase the reproductive fitness of the recipient. According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, Selfish and competitive strategies are favoured over probationary time and there is no scope for altruistic behaviour.
According to Hamilton the altruism is evolved along with natural selection. Although it seems that both are contradictory in nature at first instance however both are related.
When the actor and recipient have the same genes at one or more loci than the actor can increase the copies of their genes through the recipient reproduction. i.e. another actor is more to used for inducive fitness rather than individual fitness.
Belding's ground squirrels give alarm calls when an actor spot a predatory and attract the predator as such predator may attack a calling actor squirrel.